SHOLAR SPORT. A PROBLEM BETWEEN EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SOCIAL PRACTICES.

Manuel Vizuete Carrizosa

MANUEL VIZUETE CARRIZOSA

Maestro de Enseñanza Primaria – Licenciado en Educación Física – Licenciado en Geografía e Historia – Doctor en Historia Contemporánea. Catedrático de Universidad. Lineas de Investigación: Didáctica de la Educación Física. Producción Materieles Didácticos para la Educación Física Escolar. Historia y Filosofía del Deporte y de la Educación Física. Formación del Profesorado de Educación Física. Fundador de La European Union Physical Education Associations (EUPEA) Comité de Expertos del Consejo de Europa (EF, Deporte Escolar y Deporte para Jóvenes) Coordinador del Foro Hispanomexicano.

1 Introduction.

The different processes of reform of education systems in Europe often touch only tangentially the issue of sport at school age. The lack of tradition in the educational system with respect to physical education as a subject fully integrated into education systems and the lack of appreciation of their curricula and educational content as well as the fact that sport in school has been located , from its origins in a kind of nebula or no man’s land in which the education and culture concepts are confused usually, which has given more importance to the forms than to the bottom, along with the not inconsiderable political and media pressure on educational concepts relating to sport in school, have led both the sport and the sport-school curriculum, an educational immunodeficiency situation, which places the faculty and the education system with almost no ability to react, to pressing issues with nature of pandemics, are affecting not only the educational treatment of sports, intra-and extra-curricular, but also the social body, which alarms relating to health in terms of morbid obesity of children, violence in sport, doping of athletes schoolchildren and other types of abuse in sport as a framework, urging a full investigation and urgent action.

True, and in this case contrasted, than necessary educational reforms often lack influence in the life of the classroom, especially if no special attention to training and professional development of teachers, since this is the key factor that determines the success or failure of the implementation of any reform or curriculum innovation. In this case, and despite being a group particularly young and anxious about his training, both the inertia and the huge deficits as a theoretical foundation within their initial training, unable to change the preconceptions they bring and justify the choice of profession, Fullan[1] validate the theory when he argues that:

Changes in education depend on what the teachers think and do something so simple and yet so complex…

 Despite having made a huge effort, probably one of the biggest and best in the neighboring countries, in curriculum design in the planning approach and teaching in physical education at all levels, is no less true that these efforts and the consequent structural and curricular changes proposed from the government are not sufficient to cause a significant change in the teaching approaches of teachers, leading to real clarification of objectives and content and, consequently, to improve education, simply because teachers are not just limited to technical reforms or implement curricular innovations. The teachers have knowledge, ideas, values, attitudes and ways of understanding their discipline that are motivating its decision-making, which must be added, his own life experience, the personal and social and professional contexts in working, which are especially critical to the implementation of any proposed curriculum implementation.

We are facing a new position and social requirement responds to recent demand, emergent and urgent, seeking in physical education and the practice of sport and physical activity an effective defense against threats to health and quality of life, resulting from the new social dynamics and changes in lifestyles. Those circumstances having been raised in a geometric progression in the last quarter of the twentieth century, pandemics threaten to become, if not social cancers, economically costly, difficult to treat and great alarm.

The disappearance of the cold war and the new social dynamics imposed by this circumstance to sports policies, severely marked traditional perspectives and approaches existing physical education and school sport until then oriented towards a sports physical concept to be restated, in the light of these new demands and social perspectives, towards a new concept emerging in Europe, related to the health and quality of life, defined as culture of the movement. In this regard have been key studies and investigations made by Bart Crum (2004), Brettschneider and Kleine (2003), Hardman and Marshall (2000), Vizuete (2002) Carreiro da Costa (2005) subject to rigorous debate within the scientific community and backed by European investigations and meetings.

This is of the necessary conceptual clarification, whether the sport in school or sports activities offered to our school curriculum both in the physical education course as the social practices of sport in school, promoted by the administrations, qualify and educational teaching, both quantitative and qualitative, targeted and justified, to this new social orientation of physical activity, defined as health practice is a hallmark of growing, the same way, which have established to be institutional and educational measures to ensure the educational dimension.

The problem lies in not having been able, so far, to understand from education budgets, the striking changes in mentality and social dynamics, related to sport and culture of the movement, which have taken place in recent years, and should have been assumed by the school concept of discipline, redefining the curricular and extracurricular sports, physical education guidance to this new form of culture.

From a strictly scientific and educational, in the light of scientific contributions in the area of knowledge and contemporary science education, we must ask:

  • We now hold that the mere practice of a sport, without there being any process of teaching and curriculum planning in itself is educational?
  • From a scientific point of view and educational, you can continue to accept and maintain that a child or a child in school, do a sport with the same rules, same disciplinary rigor and the same intent as an adult?
  • You can accept that an activity with great educational potential, such as sport, can be manipulated, more to miseducate which to form democratic citizens and socially integrated, due to which interest is not known and that it may also be made from pure voluntarism and teaching without training?

In contemporary education, physical education for the XXI century, to which we refer, aims to educate in sports rather than education through sport. The reasons are simple and coincide with the above. Education through sport requires, in principle, in practice ignore the value and impact of the uncertainty factor on the outcome of the alleged action sports and education, which is what makes an attractive activity. Scientifically speaking, you cannot raise educational activity assuming, a priori, a high degree of uncertainty about the results, while, to educate in sport, education involves the acceptance of uncertainty factors and recognizing its educational value as a driver of practice of physical activities and sports throughout life.

In the usual practice of physical activities, the company is ahead of policy approaches and educational inertia showing every day, every time we go out into the street, in sports news or on television, what are the contemporary requirements of knowledge physical activity, and which is therefore the treatment of sport education required by the twenty-first century society.

This is how the sport at school age has to be rethought and oriented towards the participation and integration of future citizens in the culture of the movement. This approach requires less curricular school sport sportsman and closer to the humanistic, individual reality of each school, their physical capabilities and their integration into this new way of understanding physical activity.

It must be possible to sport at school age to suit each and every need, which would lead, in practice, the application of the concept individualized instruction in physical education and sport, without this may be antithetical to the values of solidarity, cooperation and teamwork, traditionally attributed to the sport, as part of their own educational rhetoric. This concept leads us to the school sports curriculum with formal and informal means of quality requirement, qualified technicians, open and non-traumatic, which is really important social integration and maintenance of health through the practice of physical activities.

These are the motivations that lead us to rethink the concept of sport at school age, research and the first prospective study and then the sport in the school they founded, technically and socially, the educational practices of children’s sports content and young twenty-first century. Some backgrounds of these concerns are part of the line of work developed in recent years in many European countries. As reference works, worth mentioning the following:

  1. European trends in Youth Sport: A report from 11 European Countries, is a cross-European comparative study and directed by Paul De Knop[2] significant countries in different areas and geographic and socio-economics of the European Union, which were studied sports promotion policies directed at young people which showed the characteristics of youth sporting activities in Europe. As the most common problems identified in most countries studied, in relation to youth and sport, De Knop highlights:
  2. Neglect and loss of interest in the young for organized sports.
  3. Excessive adult influence of sport on sport for children and young people, both as regards the values to the rules and regulations, in such a way that forces a child of eight years to play with the same rules and standards as an adult. In many sports, says the report, children are treated as adults or tiny homunculi.
  4. The sport has become too organized, too serious and less fun, the seriousness of this is directly proportional to the decrease in age of the athlete.
  5. The sport tends to increase the social differences between young people, so that both practical and accessibility are, at heart, conditioned by the social position of the family. This segregation is not intentional but is caused due to different causes and issues familiar to the availability of logistics and transport, equipment, etc.
  6. The influence of the economy is another factor influencing the youth sport, the cost of the facilities and coaches, etc…
  7. Ethical issues are another problem that appears to be significant, some of them, as will be related to the identity of sport in education.
  8. Ensuring qualified faculty and staff is another outstanding problem because, in too many cases, the sport of children and young people is in the hands of volunteers.
  1. Sport, Health and Physical Education: Reconsideration. Another relevant research and background we use was developed in the UK and put on the table the following conclusions:
    1. It is not possible to generalize or encapsulate the complex relationships between physical education, health and sports.
    2. It is absolutely necessary to establish a clear distinction between sport and exercise, as they involve different types of values and social relations are the result of different personal reasons that each access to physical activity and also have different impacts on
    3. There must be differences between different types and levels of sport with the distinctions of contact sport and non-contact and between mass sports and elite sport and define, in each case the differential impact that these types of exercise have on health.
    4. Encourage the practice of rhythmic activities uncompetitive due to their higher health benefits and fewer lesions, compared to competitive activities and contact.

Summarizing these two studies, we can determine the existence of a crossroads situation in Europe regarding youth sport in the sense that exhausted traditional sports promotion based on talent identification or increased competitive practice from early ages, as ideal formula to increase the number of elite athletes, there is a situation of social reaction in the youth and intellectual world, against the social and institutional structures in the last quarter century, have been giving shelter to sport Youth from the quarry on this understanding of elite sport, or as a way to justify social policies relating to culture and the welfare society. In our view, the leaders of these crisis situations would be:

  1. The sports policy of the last thirty years in which bet heavily on a fall in the age of initiation into competitive sport.
  2. The identification of talents and expanding technology, compared to the monitoring of the educational theories and pedagogical qualification for professional practice of physical education and school sport and youth.

In the first case the drop of sport are caused by exhaustion of the capacity for satisfaction of personal needs from the sport by establishing a common denominator for all, with the consequent consideration like things of athletes, and an assessment of individuals base its competitiveness and its sporting success and, second, by the existence of a dehumanizing practice of selective physical activities, so that detected the talent, the almost-no-talent or talents, to add to the ranks of absolute anonymity without the sports system, again have the slightest interest in them. In both cases, the dropout are more than justified and demonstrates the inability of the sport to have a complete picture of the social landscape from an educational perspective.

2 Sport in school as education.

Assuming the identity of school sport education, we must consider it as any other education, submitting to the questions that contemporary education set for any other matter. The first question would be what to teach. The answer to this question has been taken as an obvious issue for too long; however, many experts would not be able to articulate a coherent discourse on the contents of school sport beyond the familiar topics of the old sportivist rhetoric.

The question is not trivial and affects the inner essence of the subject to teach, which should be related to the second question that we asked for, as noted in the figure, school sports participation a double dimension that includes education as a broadcaster action knowledge, skills, habits and attitudes and on the other, is immersed in a culture that has its own specific identity of strong character, and where the action of transmission of such knowledge, is outside the family.

Understood as a culture, school sports, belongs to the orbit of the society in which we live and the family to which they belong, where educational activities are always performed by impregnation, and in many cases in the orbit of uses, traditions and customs. Figure 1

A careful analysis of the diagram above situations clear enough and confronts us with a question that is key to the essential problem of school sport, to establish the confluence of education and culture on the same subject and the result can educable be so uncertain as antagonistic to the interests of health education for our purposes.

From this perspective, is where we will raise and trying to answer these four questions common to any educational approach:

What to teach? Until we’ve located the identity crisis in physical education the answer was tacitly agreed and understood. Amid the tension sparked by sporting the Cold War and the progressive sportification of Western society, the goals focused on learning technical and tactical different sports, depending on the type of each individual, trying to detect the desired talent, without considering other implications or circumstances after the usefulness of this learning staff, in most cases ended up falling in a vacuum.

However, as I said, we must take into account the social phenomenon of sportification of Western society and the new demands of this society about the role of sport and the consequences of the widespread practice is carrying on the social structures of sport, and defined as less-sportivization Crum. This phenomenon, I understand, is what cannot be separated or be ignored when establishing any educational approach on sport and the way it should be understood and seen in both curricula and extra-school practices. [3]

Sport, in its assessment and curricular approach has usually been an immediate correspondence with the social needs of exercise and the democratization process of teaching, so that, at present, the strong social value reorientation of the phenomenon and loss of political interest in the sport, they begin to cause a fall in peak lift which will depend on the new social and educational interests of the sport, now reframed from a current perspective, consistent with the appearance of new diseases whose origin is inactivity and loss of family and social interest for the practice of physical and sports activities for children.[4]

What would thus differentiate curriculum approaches a sport oriented school health from physical activity? First answer directly affects the traditional model of school sports-oriented selective detection of talents and, secondly, to the intent of the process of education through physical activities. A look at the development of research applied to sport in recent decades certainly gives a disappointing and embarrassing scene. We can almost ensure that investment in research on issues of school sport, despite the usual fanfare of campaign politics, tends to zero. The causes were lack of public interest in educational research, the excess in research on issues of performance, of doubtful utility, and maintenance of school sport in the role of younger brother who, despite the bombastic political discourse, have not changed diapers.

A sport in the school for the twenty-first century requires more research investment and the formation of well-trained corps of specialists capable of responding to new needs of children and youth, related to the demands of contemporary children’s and youth societies whose profiles are sufficiently different from those of previous decades, the solutions implemented then, many derived methods in Spanish post-Civil War coined, meaningless today and practicality.

How do you teach? The conclusions drawn from the above lead us to approach for an urgent upgrade teaching methods and approaches, as long as all the disciplines related to science education have rethought their specific teaching, in the case of school sports, the application of current educational and scientific approaches, applied by specialists in Sports Science or Sports Pedagogy, remains not only an unresolved, but one of the obstacles more difficult to remove. At this point the teaching methods applied in school sports are still, mostly, subject to the customs and teaching models and policy approaches scientifically obsolete.

When and where to teach? We return again to raise the problem of inertia of school sport. Missing the usual spaces of free play and spontaneous urban environments of the large population centers, sports activities, and the school has taken refuge in the sports and has been regulated, subject to the schedule, a pseudo-technical planning and obsolete and inappropriate teaching approaches. In short, in the words of Paul Knopp:[5]

The sport is far too organized, too serious and less fun, the seriousness of this is directly proportional to the decrease in the age of the athlete.

In this regard, in view of the results, you should consider if the sports complex, the federal structures and approaches that have been used for, not too aggressive to make sense of educational sport at school age, before the which produces an action of rejection by children and young people who would no doubt be kinder to environment, less rigid and more fun in this sense in the same work, Knopp said the cause of abandonment of the practice:

Excessive influence of adults on the sport of sport for children and youth, both in terms of values ​​as the rules and regulations, so that a child is forced / a eight-year playing with the same rules and standards as an adult. In many sports, children are treated as adults or tiny homunculus.

  1. Sport in school as the balm that cures everything. The problem of the model.

It is hard to find today, as another possibility and rhetoric as cure-all as referring to physical education and sport, no doubt by the desire to claim them socially from this discipline through sport can solve almost all the evils and problems, and learn or teach all sorts of knowledge and skills. Hand in hand with traditional rhetoric, sport at school age, as the blessed balm of D. Quixote can cure almost all ills, physical, psychological and social, which consequently puts it head in a certain sense of Druidism that through the alchemy of sport, can heal ailments, body shape, improve posture, reduce madness, releasing tension and all of them almost effortlessly and having fun. Thus, sport in school has just become a sort of panacea to cure the dangers of the street, restrain the passions and from all evil. A sort of religion with his ministers and sororities, which have to follow more by faith than by science as it as provided in Berceo’s poem………. More is known for using that knowledge.

From this position of skepticism about the merits per se of the sport in school, I want to join European colleagues who have studied this issue and whose doubts lead us to raise the sport and health education from physical activity, directly to the problem of choice of model. Reasoning about the concerns of these benefits has been raised by Crum under four basic premises:

  1. Wait a presumption is that sport has positive educational effects.
  2. The way the coaches and trainers organize and raise the sport situations are critical to achieving educational potential effects of sports activities.
  3. The results of recent research on the benefits for physical, psychological and social work with young people in sports clubs, forced to take precautions when making such statements.
  4. If organized sport to develop its potential contribution to the education of young people need: 1. Set realistic goals. Planning interventions 3. Investing in teachers and qualified coaches.

 

For sports clubs the idea of ​​education through sport, is something like a fata morgana, as getting young people to do sports, does not guarantee an immediate achievement of the desired educational effect. Education in sport can be a motto much more realistic and responsible they will realize that everything depends on the quality of coaches and the way in which it is considered sport for young people. Without going into details, the bottom line is that it is impossible to determine a systematic influence of sport club members in the physical, mental and social wellbeing of young

Almost in the same way, Wolf Brettschneider, from Paderborn University in publishing the results of a longitudinal research which deals with the issue realistically holds:

It is too optimistic to assume and must relativize the claim that sports clubs have positive influence on youth development. In fact, huge differences can be seen similar among young people, whether or not to sports clubs, these differences could be attributed to the fact that sports clubs attract in particular young people who are very young have taken a good physical condition.[6]

Defined the problem of relativity of beliefs about the virtues of centuries-old sport, I think it is urgent that these should be put intervention strategies in health education from the physical activity that is the issue at hand, in my point of view and from the idea that strategies are ways of dealing with a didactic purpose, which in our case would be related to the binomial health education – physical activity, moving from a mathematical terms the problem we find ourselves before physical activity – health education .

Thus set the terms of the problem and recovering the idea of ​​strategies as the Gordian knot of the matter at hand, it must go to the initial interrogation of the box, which had left the question put at the junction between the concepts of culture and education cover sport at school age. This question is located in an indissoluble part of the problem has to do with concepts, ideas, goals and objectives that refer to education and culture in relation to sport and that I have stated previously. From a standpoint of culture as a reality, not only identifying but identifiable as ways of understanding life, it seems appropriate that we establish a first distinction between the meaning socially, culturally and educationally, each of the concepts and their location temporary space of human life.

Clearly it is necessary in each case and depending on the location of political and economic partner, but also the cultural and religious ideas about the conception of the human body and its role, deciding on the approach, depending on the model of society is necessary to implement the practice of sport at school age that will necessarily impact on the approach and teaching strategies. All this, without losing sight of underlying teleology, in each case has to be oriented to the ultimate goal of physical activity as a model of quality of life and healthy living. Taking the above scheme, we try to deepen the conceptual differences between the two positions, and its implications for sport at school age. Physical Education.

In approach from the culture, the positions and approaches would necessarily be aimed at meeting production targets, understood in terms of tangible and measurable results from a standpoint of public or social utility, if any.

From this point of view, and without going into assessments of ethical and moral fully encompass the work and make the pros, because the act of teaching or the development of practice related to sports and physical activities, impact fully in the health of citizens and life expectancy and quality of life.

From the unscientific, the existence of a curriculum based on practices related to culture and tradition, it is safe to the sketch the following differentiation on the work of physical education as a sequential model. A translation into teaching language in both positions, which would clear, the way or teaching approaches from which to address the strategies of the sport in the school effectively.

Perhaps if we could isolate these two visions of sport in school without getting into the reality of the connections and social presence, ignoring the situation sportification the same, the issue of strategies for health education would not be a big problem however, at present the social pressure comes from the mega-development of sport in Western society that has generated sportificación the same without this concept involves the existence of a society practicing sports or physical activities, but a society that adopts certain external signs of identity and behavior or language that are specific to the sport. It is not about being a practitioner of physical activity, but to be recognized as having a way to be identifiable as sportiva.

  1. Concept and significance of intra-and extra-curricular sport.

After two days’ work in a multidisciplinary group and an excellent work for discussion and reflection by the experts participating in a previous consultation who attended the meeting sponsored by the Spanish Higher Sports Council, and the Barcelona Olympic Foundation, it was a series of concussions; the listed the most important and significant.

  • Means for sport at school age that develops with children at these ages and therefore may have different levels of organization and guidance, but always respecting their rights and developmental characteristics that are established as lower and as an athlete in school. Differentiating the school sports curriculum integrated into the physical education curriculum own educational goals, school-age sport, as a projection of the practice-oriented learning stable physical activity.
  • From the clarity of this approach is necessary to establish a route of administration and powers that will allow both processes are possible and complementary.
  • This discussion should generate the necessary and fundamental arguments that define the areas of institutional competence on sport at school age, from the considerations mentioned in the above headings.
  • We understand that the concept of sport in school should be placed in the context closest to the student’s life, and that its two fundamental references should be the school and the family home, so that the powers should be, both in educational administration and in the next sports administration.
  • There is unanimity in considering the educational dimension of sport in school age and the need for its close relationship with the school based management in this sense should distinguish between:
  • Curricular school sport. As an essential part of the curriculum of physical education course, aimed at acquiring knowledge, skills and abilities related to different sports and ultimate purpose of which corresponds to the health and social dimension of the practice of physical activities as usual activity the rest of life.
  • Sport at school age. Understood as a practical application of knowledge acquired in the subject of physical education, aimed at social and civic participation in the culture of movement from outside the school, involving all social partners and governments, maintaining the educational dimension and taught by experts with the required quality controls in a democratic society and technologically advanced.
  1. High competition sport with school ages athletes. Understood as practiced by the school or school-age persons belonging to the elite sports. He was out of the debate by having their own identity and not be applicable to the objective of the discussion group, however, raised the need to work in a Child Protection Policy which give equal protection Athlete both these athletes as any other aimed at both the punishment and prevention of any circumstances, criminal conduct, or abuse that may occur to the school both in sport immediately, and to the physical or psychological consequences as a result of sports could
  2. Participation in sport federations at school age, is complex and not without debate, it seems clear that the vast majority of actors involved, do not bet on the sports federations involved in the sport at age school, and in any case, if necessary, it seems clear that their participation should be subject to a number of controls and constraints of powers to ensure the educational function that is pursued and that, by its nature, departs from the purposes of competition, selection and elitism of the world federation for themselves what is involved:
    • Establish general guidelines that clearly define the functions and objectives of the sports federations in sport at school age, and the powers of the institutions involved.
    • Establish clear separation between the sport in school and sports outside school, ensuring the identity of both approaches to sports, without possibility of errors or confusion.
    • In terms of sports policies in the last 30 years. Persistent errors are recognized, of which are the following:
  3. Development of democratic values and participation in social development of the sport.
  4. The value and impact of social integration that the practices of sport at school age have as a positive.
  5. The early specialization and the pursuit of early results.
  6. Excessive media influence or introducing negative factors in the ways of understanding the sport.
  7. Although popular culture is one of the benchmarks of educational action, however, in practice, it should be noted certain positive and negative factors that could undermine or qualify the educational outcomes of sport at school age:
  8. It therefore poses the need for a pact of state for sport at school age that should be translated into a Nationals Plans of sport at school age.
  9. The sportivization of the physical education is presented as the result of external pressures that have participated equally in the schools, teachers, school athletes and parents, having been in too many cases, undermined the purpose of sport in the curriculum and external practice.
  10. National guidelines on sport at school age. They appear as absolutely necessary and urgent, and must be addressed in a legal document to establish and clarify the powers of the state both as models of participation and competence of the Autonomous Communities related to/or:
    • Equality of opportunity for all children to sport at school age, regardless of the territory in which they are.
    • From the understanding of the educational value of sport in school and their membership unequivocally the concept of integral education of the person, must be treated like any other field of education, guaranteeing a minimum educational content for all Citizens, especially geared to the health and quality of life.
    • Development of the freedom of movement, choice and participation in sport at school age, regardless of the territory in which they are.
    • Enjoy the rights established for the practice and / or competitive sport, regardless of the territory in which they are or where they reside.
      • Existence of standard low-current and without connection to reality and the interests of children and young people today.
      • Persistence of models competitiveness which anchored in the period of the Cold War and in school sports schemes as grassroots sport.
      • No attention to diversity and customization of training and education in sport.
      • Sports selective versus inclusive sport and neglect poorly equipped.
      • Lack of training and specific technical update for the sport at school age with rigor and scientific approaches.
      • Institutional policies silos with little or no permeability, without optimization of resources or support for school athletes.
      • Lack of an educational approach rigorous scientific approach.
      • Permanent divorce between the curricular school sport and sport at school age.
      • The need to develop a curricular approach for school age sports on scientific and rationally built on real budgets.
      • Increase investment in research and technical training in sport at school age.

Discussion.

The sportificación society, however, must be understood in two conditions, one hand the aforementioned identification with ways of being and understanding of life, but also, in the literal sense of the sport, from overcoming the old schemes of orthodox and traditional sport, the more flexible application of the concept sport for all as a real option approach to the benefits of the practice of physical activities or competitive sports without formal intent. In this sense, it is clear that civil society has broken the monopoly of both social sports clubs, private and traditional public as generated by the government as a form of political control and projection and has exceeded expectations most optimistic development of the sport that could have been formulated in the seventies or eighties, which, at this point is relevant to our approach.

The foreseeable consequences of this phenomenon will undoubtedly democratization of old and obsolete structures of sport, rooted in traditional, static models of little social utility. In this sense, the sportification sport, should be happen the less-portivization of the sport. By setting these two concepts, Crum is referring to the need to reduce the economic effort, social and political used in elite sport, as a reaction against the meritocratic sport the benefit of a more democratic and more in line with the idea of sport for all. Position which would be more in line with the guidance of today’s society and values ​​of postmodernism as self and health, narcissism and hedonism, alternative sports, recreation, adventure, improving physical fitness, and so on. Those generate a lot of sports types and models, many done from a standpoint of the development strategies of sport in school.

From this differentiation of families and ways of understanding the sport, we are facing a difficult situation. Certainly the concept of educating for salus through sport and what types of values ​​was necessary and possible to develop through it were clear until well into the eighties, however, crises and social development of the sport, along with sportificación clarified and society, have put the kibosh on just a couple of decades, ideas, principles and values ​​that we believed firmly and solidly seated.

Another key issue is to clarify which of these models are already present in our society and which ones are coming, considering that many of them depend on both economic factors such as intentions and political will, for the same reason, which of them are models with a tendency to disappear and which will be emerging at the time that current recipients of the educational have to face, as responsible citizens free to choose a specific physical activity that promotes health.

It is therefore necessary to redefine, what and how to be an educational intervention for health from physical activity. The concept of physical activity has to be redefined in terms different from those usually applied to it, I understand that in this case cannot be referred to as a method but as a result of the entire process, from my point of view the concept of physical activity is the desirable goal, obtained as a result of a successful educational process.

In obtaining a positive educational action leading to a healthy active life and focused on quality of life involves two key players: physical education, understood as an act and a scientifically planned process in which the sport appears as content education, in this case referring to education in sport, clearly oriented to participation in the culture of movement from outside the school, but also intra-school as a phenomenon or vehicle that moves back and forth and applies, a perfect application of the philosophy of educating for life, learning sports physical education provided by the social position of socialization critical for the sport in school sports activities.

In this process of educational intervention, the starting point is the development of school physical education content that are related to the construction of sport education concept that is preparing the future citizens to practice enough and worthy of sports and activities that culture, participating in the movement. Sport is an agent of social mediation that must be built from physical education by developing curricula that involve the development of skills, physical skills and health habits, and whose development in terms of its application outside of school must be especially careful and targeted as part of comprehensive education and training.

This last statement leads us to question the models of sport in school unrelated to educational activities and we should put on some of the previously offered dubious educational identity.

Finally, the physical education-sport combination indeed developed from educational and scientific assumptions is provided by the physical activity as a means or non-oriented principle, but as a result of the educational process and consequently desirable, health-oriented and quality of life.

Manuel Vizuete Carrizosa

Bibliografía:

BRETTSCHNEIDER, W.-D. & KLEINE, T. : (2003) Jugendarbeit in Sportvereinen. Anspruch und Wirklichkeit. Schorndorf: Hofmann.

CRUM,B.: (1993) The identity crisis of Physical Education. “To teach or not to be, that is the question”. Lisboa. Boletim SPEF. Nº7/8 Inverno/Primavera.

CRUM, B.: (1993) The sportification of the society and the internal differentiation of sport. Conferencia impartida en el seno del Congreso FISU “Change and the human dimension of Physical Activity” Buffalo, NY, USA – 8-11 Julio de 1993.

CRUM, B.: (2005) Educación a través del deporte” un lema para la educación física escolar, un callejón sin salida, una alternativa y algunas características para una educación física de calidad. En Valores del Deporte en la Educación. (Año Europeo de la Educación a través del deporte) M. Vizuete (Coord.) Madrid. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE: Towards a policy to increase the opportunities for physical education and sport for children and young people. Draft paper. 16th Informal Meeting of European Sports Ministers Warsaw, Poland. 12-13 September 2002

COUNCIL OF EUROPE: Proposals for national, regional and local action plans and possible pan-European programmes to improve the quality and quantity of physical and education and sport for children and young people in the member States of the Council of Europe. Background document. 16th Informal Meeting of European Sports Ministers Warsaw, Poland. 12-13 September 2002

COUNCIL OF EUROPE: Summary Report on Access to Physical Education and Sport: Children and Young People. Background document. Draft paper. 16th Informal Meeting of European Sports Ministers Warsaw, Poland. 12-13 September 2002

COUNCIL OF EUROPE: Resolution No. 1/2002 on improving the quality and quantity of physical education and sport for children and young people in the member States of the Council of Europe. 16th Informal Meeting of European Sports Ministers Warsaw, Poland. 12-13 September 2002

DE KNOP, P. (1996) European trends in Youth Sport: A report from 11 European countries. European Journal of Physical Education, Manchester, 1, pp.36-45

VIZUETE, M: (2005) El deporte educativo desde la Educación Física y desde la Cultura Física en Europa.. En Valores del Deporte en la Educación. (Año Europeo de la Educación a través del deporte) M. Vizuete (Coord.) Madrid. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia.

VIZUETE, M: (2005) La sportificación de la sociedad europea y el deporte como vía para la educación en valores. En Valores del Deporte en la Educación. (Año Europeo de la Educación a través del deporte) M. Vizuete (Coord.) Madrid. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia.

[1] FULLAN, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. Chicago: Teacher College Press, p. 117

[2] DE KNOP, P.: European trends in Youth Sport: A report from 11 European countries. European Journal of Physical Education, Manchester,1996, 1, pp.36-45

[3] VIZUETE, M: (2005) La sportificación de la sociedad europea y el deporte como vía para la educación en valores. En Valores del Deporte en la Educación. (Año Europeo de la Educación a través del deporte) M. Vizuete (Coord.) Madrid. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia.

[4] COUNCIL OF EUROPE: Towards a policy to increase the opportunities for physical education and sport for children and young people. Draft paper. 16th Informal Meeting of European Sports Ministers Warsaw, Poland. 12-13 September 2002

COUNCIL OF EUROPE: Proposals for national, regional and local action plans and possible pan-European programmes to improve the quality and quantity of physical and education and sport for children and young people in the member States of the Council of Europe. Background document. 16th Informal Meeting of European Sports Ministers Warsaw, Poland. 12-13 September 2002

COUNCIL OF EUROPE: Summary Report on Access to Physical Education and Sport: Children and Young People. Background document. Draft paper. 16th Informal Meeting of European Sports Ministers Warsaw, Poland. 12-13 September 2002

COUNCIL OF EUROPE: Resolution No. 1/2002 on improving the quality and quantity of physical education and sport for children and young people in the member States of the Council of Europe. 16th Informal Meeting of European Sports Ministers Warsaw, Poland. 12-13 September 2002

[5] DE KNOP, P. (1996) European trends in Youth Sport: A report from 11 European countries. European Journal of Physical Education, Manchester, 1, pp.36-45

[6] BRETTSCHNEIDER, W.-D. & KLEINE, T. : (2003) Jugendarbeit in Sportvereinen. Anspruch und Wirklichkeit. Schorndorf: Hofmann.

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